Cognition, Affect, and Motivation in Technology-Rich Learning Environments

E-textbooks in Undergraduate Biology Education


This project evaluated a large-scale e-textbook initiative that aimed to promote international, coordinated, and sustained change in higher education. Concerned about rising textbook costs for students, particularly in the sciences, a Department of Biology at a public university in the United States adopted e-textbooks for undergraduate biology courses giving students first-day access to materials. As part of this initiative, we conducted an extensive data collection to evaluate cognitive, affective, and motivational aspects of learning with e-textbooks.


We developed instruments for assessing e-text cognitive load (Novak et al., 2018a) and e-text frustration (Novak et al, 2022), and established an empirical support for Keller’s (2008) integrative theory of Motivation, Volition, and Performance (Novak et al., 2018b) and Bessière et al.’s (2006) model for computer frustration (Novak et al, forthcoming).

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Emotions in Teacher Education


Emotions can impact teaching, learning, and engagement, as well as social climate in a classroom. In addition, emotions are critical for student and teacher well-being and therefore should be studied along other important educational outcomes.

  • We examined science teaching anxiety in preservice elementary teachers and developed a scale for measuring this construct (Novak, Soyturk, & Navy, 2022).

  • We explored preservice teachers' math anxiety and mathematics performance in geometry, word, and non-word problem-solving (Novak & Tassell, 2015).

Related Publications: 

Novak, E., Soyturk, I., & Navy, S., (2022). Development of the Science Teaching Anxiety Scale for Preservice Elementary Teachers: A Rasch
            Analysis. Science Education. 1-26.

Novak, E. (2021). Mathematical modeling for theory-oriented research in educational technology. Educational Technology Research &                           Development.

Novak, E., McDaniel, K., Daday, J. & Soyturk, I., (2021). Frustration in Technology-rich learning environments: Development of a scale for                      assessing student frustration with e-textbooks. British Journal of Educational Technology, 00, 1-24.


Novak, E., Daday, J., & McDaniel, K. (2018b). Using a mathematical model of Motivation, Volition, and Performance to examine students’ e-

text learning experiences. Educational Technology Research & Development. 66(5), 1189-1209.

Novak, E., Daday, J., & McDaniel, K. (2018a). Assessing intrinsic and extraneous complexity of e-text learning. Interacting with Computers,

30(2), 150-161.

Novak, E., & Tassell, J. (2017). Studying preservice teacher math anxiety and mathematics performance in geometry, word, and non-word

problem solving. Learning and Individual Differences, 54, 20-29.